Climate change is a dynamic process that is affecting global temperatures and Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the atmosphere. Lately, solar radiation quality, and heat stress has become a main concern of researchers and producers. The high temperatures can affect all stages of development, but cotton appears to be more susceptible during the reproductive growth stage. High temperatures induce negative effects on plant physiology, lowering photosynthetic activity.
Rising CO2 levels may currently be benefitting cotton, but the long-term impact will probably not be desirable. A rise in temperatures and the CO2 level is forecast to increase pests, increase demand for potassium fertilizer and increase vegetative growth. Dryland cotton could be affected more than irrigated.
Genetic improvement and modification of agricultural tasks will be needed for crops to adapt to future climate conditions, and these include proper nutrition, the use of growth regulators, and varieties tolerant to heat stress, drought or salinity. Only through research and work experience related to agronomic and weather conditions can new management practices for cotton farming be formulated.